Glossary

SIMONA PMC Terms and Definitions

A-stage

This is a very early stage in the reaction of certain thermosetting resins where the molecular weight is low and the resin is still fusible and soluble in some liquids.

Additive

A substance compounded into a resin to enhance or improve certain characteristics.

Anti-Blocking & Anticaking Agents

These additives are used to prevent the adhesion of two touching layers of film during fabrication and storage.

Anti-stats (Antistatic)

The use of these additives will eliminate or lessen static electricity.  PMC offers both permanent anti-stat materials and traditional blooming anti-stat.

Antioxidants & Antiozonants

These additives are used to prevent the negative effects of oxygen and ozone on the resin materials.

B-stage

This describes an intermediate stage of reaction where the material will soften when heated and swells in the presence of certain liquids, but may not completely fuse or dissolve. The resin is usually supplied in this uncured state.

Bulk-molding compounds (BMC)

Bulk-molding compounds are used as a premix in composite manufacturing. A BMC consists of a mixture of resin, reinforcements, inert fillers, and other additives, which form a puttylike preformed shape, rope or sheet.

Binder

A resin or other material used to hold particles together. The binder is the continuous phase in a reinforced plastic, which provides mechanical strength or ensures uniform consistency, solidification, or adhesion to a surface coating. Typical binder materials include resin, glue, gum and casein.

Biocides & Fungicides, Anti Microbials, Anti-virals

These additives act as pesticides and are used to inhibit the growth of fungus, bacteria & viruses and other pests.

Blowing & Foaming Agents

Upon addition to plastics or rubbers and then heating, this chemical generates inert gases, which results in the resin assuming a cellular structure.

Blow Molding

Method of fabrication in which a warm plastic parison (hollow tube), is placed between the two halves of a mold cavity and forced to assume the shape of that mold cavity by use of air pressure.

Brighteners

Are used to add smoother or brighter coatings.

Brittle Temperature

A measure for judging the relative merits of materials for low temperature flexing or impact – i.e., the temperature at which materials rupture by impact under specified conditions.

Bulk Density

ASTM D1182-54 test method describes this measurement of mass per unit volume of a molding powder (in large volume determinations).

C-stage

This term describes the final stage of the reaction where the material s relatively insoluble and infusible.

Calendering

A form of extrusion using two or more counter rotating rolls in which film and sheet is produced by squeezing a hot, viscous material between them.

Cast Film

A cast film is made by placing a layer of plastic onto a surface then solidifying and removing the film from that surface. The plastic layer can be in molten form, in a solution, or in a dispersion.

Casting

The process of forming solid or hollow articles from fluid plastic mixtures or resins by pouring or injecting the fluid into a mold or against a substrate with little or no pressure, followed by solidification and removal of the formed object.

Co-extrusion

The process of combining two or more layers of extruded material to produce a multiple layer product in a single step.

Cold Flow or Creep

A time-dependent strain of solids resulting from stress.

Cold Molding

The process of compression molding involving shaping an unheated compound in a mold under pressure then heating the article to cure it.

Colorants & Pigments

Are additive used to change the color of the plastic. They can be a powder or a resin/color premix.

Composite

A structural material consisting of a combination of materials. Typically, one of the materials is a strengthening agent, the other being a thermoset or thermoplastic resin.

Compound

These are chemical combinations of materials which include all the materials necessary for the finished product. They include BMC (Bulk Molding Compounds), SMC (Sheet Molding Compounds) and TMC (Thick Molding Compounds).

Compounding

The process required to mix the polymer with all of the materials that are necessary to provide the end user with a finished product.

Compression Molding

The process of molding a material in a confined shape by applying pressure and usually heat.

This is a very early stage in the reaction of certain thermosetting resins where the molecular weight is low and the resin is still fusible and soluble in some liquids.

A substance compounded into a resin to enhance or improve certain characteristics.

These additives are used to prevent the adhesion of two touching layers of film during fabrication and storage.

The use of these additives will eliminate or lessen static electricity. PMC offers both permanent anti-stat materials and traditional blooming anti-stat.

These additives are used to prevent the negative effects of oxygen and ozone on the resin materials.

This describes an intermediate stage of reaction where the material will soften when heated and swells in the presence of certain liquids, but may not completely fuse or dissolve. The resin is usually supplied in this uncured state.

A resin or other material used to hold particles together. The binder is the continuous phase in a reinforced plastic, which provides mechanical strength or ensures uniform consistency, solidification, or adhesion to a surface coating. Typical binder materials include resin, glue, gum and casein.

These additives act as pesticides and are used to inhibit the growth of fungus, bacteria & viruses and other pests.

Method of fabrication in which a warm plastic parison (hollow tube), is placed between the two halves of a mold cavity and forced to assume the shape of that mold cavity by use of air pressure.

Upon addition to plastics or rubbers and then heating, this chemical generates inert gases, which results in the resin assuming a cellular structure.

Are used to add smoother or brighter coatings.

A measure for judging the relative merits of materials for low temperature flexing or impact – i.e., the temperature at which materials rupture by impact under specified conditions.

ASTM D1182-54 test method describes this measurement of mass per unit volume of a molding
powder (in large volume determinations).

Bulk-molding compounds are used as a premix in composite manufacturing. A BMC consists of a mixture of resin, reinforcements, inert fillers, and other additives, which form a puttylike preformed shape, rope or sheet.

This term describes the final stage of the reaction where the material s relatively insoluble and infusible.

A form of extrusion using two or more counter rotating rolls in which film and sheet is produced by squeezing a hot, viscous material between them.

A cast film is made by placing a layer of plastic onto a surface then solidifying and removing the film from that surface. The plastic layer can be in molten form, in a solution, or in a dispersion.

The process of forming solid or hollow articles from fluid plastic mixtures or resins by pouring or injecting the fluid into a mold or against a substrate with little or no pressure, followed by solidification and removal of the formed object.

The process of combining two or more layers of extruded material to produce a multiple layer product in a single step.

A time-dependent strain of solids resulting from stress.

The process of compression molding involving shaping an unheated compound in a mold under pressure then heating the article to cure it.

Are additive used to change the color of the plastic. They can be a powder or a resin/color premix.

A structural material consisting of a combination of materials. Typically, one of the materials is a strengthening agent, the other being a thermoset or thermoplastic resin.

These are chemical combinations of materials which include all the materials necessary for the finished product. They include BMC (Bulk Molding Compounds), SMC (Sheet Molding Compounds) and TMC (Thick Molding Compounds).

The process required to mix the polymer with all of the materials that are necessary to provide the end user with a finished product.

The process of molding a material in a confined shape by applying pressure and usually heat.

The ability of a material to resist a force that tends to crush it.

The highest temperature at which a material can perform reliably in long term application – long term being, however, inconsistently defined by the manufacturers.

The chemical reaction of two different monomers with each other, result in a compound.

A material that is used to form a chemical bridge between the resin and glass fiber or mineral fiber. By acting as an interface, bonding is enhanced.

Small cracks near or on the surface of lastic materials.

The formation of chemical links between the molecular chains in polymers. This process can be achieved by chemical reaction, vulcanization, and electron bombardment.

The process of changing properties of polymer into a more stable and usable condition. This is accomplished by the use of heat, radiation, or reaction with chemical additives.

The time periods at defined conditions to which a reacting thermosetting material is processed to reach a desired property level.

The measurement of temperature at which a specimen deflects 0.01 inches under a load of 66 lb/in2.

The measure of temperature at which a specimen deflects 0.01 inches under a load of 264 lb/in2.

The equivalent property to specific gravity; measured by displacement.

The ratio of the capacity of a condenser made with a particular dielectric material to the capacity of the same condenser with air as the dielectric. Measured at a frequency of 106 cycles per second.

The voltage that an insulating material can withstand before dielectric breakdown occurs.

The ratio of the power dissipated in watts in an insulating material to the product of the effective voltage and the current. Measured at a frequency of 106 cycles per second.

A descriptive notation to indicate the material’s performance.

The increase in distance between two gauge marks at the break point divided by the original distance between the marks. A zero value in the field indicates that it measured less than one.

The increase in distance between two gauge marks at a yield point divided by the original distance between the marks. A zero value indicates that it measured less than one.

A material added to a plastic compound used to reduce the amount of resin required per unit value.

The process of forming a continuous piece of plastic by forcing it through a shaping orifice with or without the presence of heat.

The manufacture of plastic products by appropriate operations. This includes plastics formed into molded parts, rods, tubes, sheeting, extrusion and other forms by methods including punching, cutting, drilling, tapping, fastening or by using other mechanical devices.

Fillers are used to make a resin less costly. They can be inert or they can alter some properties of the plastic. Reinforcements are substances used to strengthen or give dimensional stability to a material.

Films are flat materials that are extremely thin in comparison to its length and breadth. Typically, a film has a maximum nominal thickness of 0.25 millimeters.

Added to resin to retard these undesirable effects. PMC offers Halogen-free based FR materials.

Wide gate extending from a runner, which runs parallel to an edge of a molded part along the parting line of a mold.

The ratio, within the elastic limit, of the applied stress on a test specimen in flexure to the corresponding strain in the outermost fibers of the specimen.

The measure of resistance of the material to fracture during bending.

A mark on a molded piece made by the meeting of two flow fronts during molding. Also called weld line.

The process whereby the current shape of a plastic is transformed to another desired configuration.

A substance or mixture of substance added to a material to increase or control the curing reaction by taking part in it.

The resistance of a material to compression, indentation and scratching. There are several scales, and the data in the book gives both the scale used and the value on it.

The cloudy or turbid appearance of an otherwise transparent material caused by light scattered from within the specimen or from its surfaces.

These additives increase the ability of the material to withstand the negative effects of heat exposure. They are used to increase the overall service temperature of the material.

During your manufacturing processes, segregate your waste and trim scrap by resin material type and color. The more careful you are with isolating specific materials by product family and color, the more easily the load can be reprocessed for maximum return. Load your material into clean Gaylord boxes, with a clean liner, mark the material type and the estimated weight less the “tare weight” of the packing and skid, and we can handle the rest.

Contamination free material has the highest value for any extrusion operation. If you have the original sales order information and lot tracking numbers, PMC can help you recover the most value for your materials. Specification sheets on custom materials are very helpful and sampling may be requested.

Are additive used to enhance the material’s ability to withstand the force of impact.

Blow molding process by which the plastic parison to be blown is formed by injection molding.

The process of forming a material by forcing it from a heated cylinder, under pressure, through a sprue into a cavity of a confined mold.

The pressure applied to the cross-sectional area of the molding cylinder.

The energy required to break specimens in which there is a v-notch to create an initial stress point but measured at low temperature (minus 40°C).

The energy required to break specimens in which there is a v-notched to create an initial stress point.

Laminar flow of thermoplastic resins in a mold is accomplished by solidification of the layer in contact with the mold surface that acts as an insulating shell through which molten material flows to fill the remainder of the cavity.

These additives increase the ability of the material to withstand the negative effects of light and UV exposure, thus increasing the service life of the material.

The difference between the size of the part and the size of the mold cavity. Values given are often the average of a range.

The fractional change in length of a material for a unit change in temperature.

The process that involves an integrated system for proportioning, mixing, and dispensing two component liquid resin formulations and directly injecting the resultant mix into a mold which is clamped under pressure.

Internal lubricants, without affecting the fusion properties of a compound, promotes resin flow. External lubricants promote release from metals which aids in the smooth flow of melt over die surfaces.

PMC is always interested in utilizing your trim scrap material and would appreciate the opportunity to discuss your specific situation.  We carefully isolate your materials for future use in your next order or in many cases, can blend it with other materials for a more cost effective solution.  Depending on the type of scrap, a truckload may range from 10,000-40,000 lbs.  Pricing will be based accordingly.

A concentration of a substance (an additive, pigment, filler, etc.) in a base polymer.

Rate of extrusion of molten resin through a die of specified length and diameter. The conditions of the test (e.g. temperature and load) should be given. Frequently, however, the manufacturer’s data lists only the value, not the condition as well.

A lubricant used to coat a mold cavity to prevent adhesion of the molded piece when removed.

The characteristics of being easy to mold without rupturing or developing flaws due to movement of the polymer during gelation.

Odorants are used to add odor to materials, usually for safety reasons.

Are usually low-melting solids or high-boiling organic liquids which, when added to hard plastics, impart flexibility. They have varying degrees of softening action and solvating ability resulting from a reduction of intermolecular forces in the polymer.

Mixtures of plasticizers and resins, which can be converted to continuous films by applying heat.

High-molecular-weight organic compound, natural or synthetic, whose structure can be represented by a repeated small unit, the mer: e.g. polyethylene, rubber, and cellulose. If two or more monomers are involved, a copolymer is obtained.

Postindustrial regrind is different than post consumer regrind. One is regrind and the other is recycled material. Most extruders stay away from post consumer recycled plastic for fear of what might be in it (contamination), or how it was cleaned. This is changing as professional recyclers improve processes and communication. PMC will only use postindustrial regrind in percentages permitted by its customer’s product specifications.

Some processing aids include thixotropic agents, flatting agents, and blocking and anticaking agents.

The kind of processing (extruding, molding, casting, etc.) techniques recommended by the manufacturer.

An average value is given rather than the temperature range often specified by the manufacturer.

PMC routinely uses reprocessed materials that have been inspected, cleaned and re-pelletized by a professional compounder, for use in many applications. PMC recognizes that re-processed materials extrude better than regrind materials and produce a more consistent finished roll or sheet product.

A process that involves the high pressure impingement mixing of two or more reactive liquid components and injecting into a closed mold at low pressure.

The ratio of the velocity and light in a vacuum to its velocity in the material.

A plastic material with enhanced mechanical properties due to the addition of high strength fillers embedded in the composition.

Any of numerous physically similar polymerized synthetics or chemically modified natural resins including thermoplastic materials such as, polystyrene, and polyethylene that are used with fillers,
stabilizers, pigments, and other components to form plastics with engineered performance characteristic specific to each application.

Sheets are made of continuous phase plastic in a form in which the thickness is very small in proportion to length and width. The thickness is greater than 0.25 millimeters.

An additive that provides surface lubrication during and immediately following processing of the plastic material. It acts as an internal lubricant which will eventually migrate to the surfaces.

The main feed channel that connects the mold-filling orifice with the runners leading to each gravity gate. Spruce is also the piece of plastic material formed in this channel.

The passage through which molten resin flows from the nozzle to the mold cavity.

Some additives included in this category include antioxidants and antizonants, antistats, biocides and fungicides, heat stabilizers, light, and UV stabilizers and absorbers.

PMC and most extruders do not consider Start-up material regrind. This material has experienced only one-heat cycle under controlled conditions. One-heat cycle plastic does not loose any performance characteristics; it takes 6 cycles to derogate HIPS and ABS impact strength and color.

A crack, either external or internal, in a plastic caused by tensile stresses less than its short-time mechanical strength.

The process of molding thermoplastics articles with a cellular core and integral solid skins in a single operation.

The ratio of the potential gradient parallel to the current along its surface to the current per unit width of the surface.

The use of these chemicals allows the formation of an emulsion or intimate mixture of otherwise incompatible substances by modifying the surface properties and influencing the wetting and
flowing properties of liquids.

Additives used to enhance the adhesiveness or bonding ability of a material.

The ratio of nominal stress to the corresponding strain below the proportional limit of a material.

The maximum stress that a material can withstand without breaking when subjected to a stretching load.

The maximum stress that a material can withstand without yielding when subjected to a stretching load.

The rate of heat flow under steady state conditions through unit area per unit temperature gradient in a direction perpendicular to an isothermal surface.

Resins capable of undergoing a chemical reaction leading to a relative infusible and insolvable state.

Resins or plastic compounds, which in their final state are infusible and insoluble. After being fully cured, thermosets cannot be resoftened by heat.

A process of forming articles by fusing a plastic material in a chamber then forcing the whole mass into a hot mold to solidify.

The maximum temperature below which a material maintains its electrical and mechanical integrity over a reasonable period.

A process whereby a heated plastic sheet is drawn against a mold surface by evacuating the air between it and the mold.

The temperature at which a flat ended needle will penetrate a specimen under a specific load using a uniform rate of temperature rise.

Those resins that have not experienced any heat history through previous extrusion or other plastics processes and are in essence, “new”.

An unfilled space in a cellular plastic which is substantially larger than the individual cells.  Can also be an empty space in any material or medium.

The measure of ratio of the potential gradient parallel to the current in the material to the current in density.

A nonuniform change in internal stresses resulting distortion or warp of the material.

The percentage of water absorbed by a material when immersed in water for 24 hours; water absorbed in a material chiefly affects its electrical properties.

We appreciate loyalty; we are loyal to our vendors also. But we are constantly looking to see what new companies and technologies are available. We owe it to our employees and stakeholders to constantly monitor the performance of our vendors, assuring that we are receiving the expected value in return for our business. The PMC Team welcomes the opportunity to help you explore all of your options.

A reinforced plastic manufacturing process where the polymer compound is applied as a liquid as the reinforcement is put into place.

A fiber reinforcement material is coated with a polymer compound as a liquid prior to wrapping on a mandrel in the filament wound manufacturing process.

Wetting is produced when this surface active agent decreases the cohesion within a liquid.  For wetting to occur, the adhesive force between the two phases (solid and liquid) is greater than the cohesive force within the liquid.

We inspect each return lot and issue a report indicating the level of contamination, if any. We will work with you to maximize the value of your return and resolve contamination issues for future buy back opportunities.

  • Durable:  With improved impact strength over ABS, HIPS and Fiberglass materials, PMC’s diverse portfolio of high quality TPOs can withstand real world wear and tear, eliminating the need for costly secondary preventative measures, such as pre-drilling holes to prevent crack propagation.
  • Cold Weather Performance:  Cold temperature durability/impact resistance for versatility and longer wear. PMC’s TPO products are the clear choice for impact-critical applications- with a ductility down to -30° C, they excel in environments in which other plastics cannot endure.
  • Coefficient of Linear Thermal Expansion (CLTE):  Our portfolio of performance TPOs have less than half of the CLTE of ABS- one of the major attributes that solves the field cracking issues common to ABS. (CLTE is commonly confused with impact strength and cold climate durability.)
  • Sound Deadening:  TPOs possess sound deadening characteristics, resulting in a greater reduction of interior cab noise than that of styrenic-based panels  and limiting the “buzz, squeak and rattle” associated with low-quality interiors.
  • Thermoformable:  New High Melt Strength grades for TPO have opened up the process window further, so these products can be used for a variety of challenging, thermoformed  applications.
  • Recyclable:  100% of trim scrap can be reused, resulting in cost savings. Compliance with environmental standards. RoHS compliant, with no heavy metals.
  • Custom Colors, Finishes and Decorations:  To suit your applications and your customer’s discriminating taste, PMC’s TPOs are offered in metallics, pearlescents and textured patterns. They are also available in a variety of finishes, including haircell, calf, matte, smooth, scratch-resistant gloss and custom finishes.
  • Variety of Cap Layers and Specialized Grades:  PMC offers a full array of high & mid gloss, scratch whitening resistant, stress whitening resistant, and TPE cap layers.  In addition to our variety of performance substrate TPOs, V0 & V1 FR TPO materials are available.
  • UV Protected and Outdoor Weatherable Throughout:  Designed for superior performance in interior and exterior applications. Formulated using the latest coloring technology to ensure that the product will exhibit little fade, even in extreme conditions. Accelerated UV stability packages available. Improved heat aging without cracking.

We have many years of experience manufacturing sheet material, but we think the biggest strength we offer the custom market is our flexibility. We are willing to work with our customers to create a product that meets their needs. Through our relationships with an assortment of material vendors, we can work to find a solution.

PMC will evaluate  production runs of any size. We evaluate each project independently based on material, thickness and schedules.

TPO (Thermoplastic Poly Olefin) is a compounded alloy of polypropylene, elastomers and mineral fillers offering a unique balance of stiffness and thermal expansion, as well as impact and chemical resistance properties.

PMC will do what it takes to meet the needs of the customer. Depending on raw material availability, our standard lead-time is three to four weeks.

The material selection process varies from project to project, depending on several factors, including: Fabrication process, product configuration, cost structure, and end use requirements. PMC has the capability to analyze a project and consult on the best material selection for the application, including custom blends.

Our technical services include material sampling, ASTM testing, dry blend technology, color matching and applications testing (UV stability, durability, etc.).

A single-crystal, short fiber.

PMC Customers are:

  • Custom Thermoformers
  • Display Fabricators
  • Display Designers
  • OEM Manufacturers
  • Anyone who wants a high quality product at a reasonable price.

We are a custom manufacturer of:

  • Thermo Plastic Elastomer (TPE):  Offering a variety of non slip applications, engineered to
    meet your customized needs.
  • ABS, HIPS, HDPE, and Acrylics for custom thermoforming
  • Point of Purchase (POP) display material